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Well, it was not possible for me to journal EVERY day.  However, this week from my participation in the #YogaMOOC I learned a new Life Practice.  Applying my attention to be awake in moments of stress (staying in my body mentally, emotionally, and physically).  I have learned to use the off-switch protocol whenever necessary, and as often as I need to be open to feelings of centeredness, and well-being.

Common Occurrences that invoke stress:

This week I monitored these events from the perspective of my observer-self.  Most notably, I recollected my breathing patterns and how using the off-switch allowed for me to regulate not only breathing from shallow to deep breaths, but also I distinctly recall feeling my heart rate decrease ever so slowly during the process.  Bumpf bumpf, bumpf bumpf…… bumpf bumpf… nice.

I noticed when I drive long distances my hands and feet have a tingling/numb sensation.  This reminded me to wiggle my toes, and do some finger stretches, in an effort to allow for circulation.  It worked.

When cold and shivering, I was able to employ the off-switch and regulate my breathing.  I was at a park and waiting for a locksmith (yes, stress due to absent-mindedness and locking my keys in the car), so while waiting I created an opportunity to use all that I have learned this week.  First, I sat in the sunshine and practiced meditation and breathing exercises.  After observing several young people playing a ballgame, I was prompted to take a walk to get grounded and allow for better circulation.  What a reset!  The off-switch is functioning well.

It was especially revealing to find myself in situations during the week where I had to just sit and wait.  Instead of repeatedly monitoring my mobile device, I made it a point to practice breathing and meditation techniques.  This week I also put my intention on making more time to take walks, appreciate nature, being more present and observing animals and children, and finally what I call “going to the mount oft”…I have a special place where I go for this.


Lastly, I have decided to set an intention when I have feelings of depression and fatigue. The self-compassion information and resources I received this week in the #YogaMOOC converged with an outside resource I obtained, in which President Dieter F. Uchtdorf offered two suggestions in his inspiring book, “The Remarkable Soul of a Woman”.  He recommended we create in small and large ways to make a difference in the world.  And, we give compassionate care to those in need.  This is how I may give back and in the process, get my mind off of my own problems.

To put this week’s resources into practice, I commit to noticing any body sensations that relate to stress, and to memorize the statement suggested in Stacey Dockins off-mat assignment, which is.

Personal Statement of Intention:

“I commit to tuning in to the sensations of my body so that I can be aware of ANY moment of stress response within me.  I am taking full responsibility for my well-being by using my off-switch to return to balance and clarity.”

I commit to employing my own Off-switch protocol to:

  1. Notice body sensations of stress
  2. Take 5 long deep breaths, and
  3. Tune in to my surroundings

These are new habits I am developing and a New Life Practice; being awake to all moments of stress and putting that off-switch into practice as often as necessary.  Dr. Shaun House relieved a ton of stress when he declared, we have already won if we merely attempt a yoga pose!  And finally, in the Science Behind Yoga video, Dr. Bruce Lipton also noted that even just twelve minutes average per day of practice is doable.  This video offered compelling evidence for using a yoga practice to get down to really knowing the truth of who you are.








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The premise, “society’s interests are maximized when intellectual property is shared freely, with proper attribution, for noncommercial purposes” (Wiley, Bliss, & McEwen, 2014, p. 782) depends on the model in which copyright standards are based. As Siemens noted (Laureate Education, 2015), there are two ways to look at the way intellectual property is shared.  If the copyright model is too loose, creators may not be protected, so tend to keep their information in secrecy, which has a chilling effect, drying up original creative ideas; when copyright was intended to protect ownership and respect creators or original content.  However, if copyright requirements are too strict, there is no way to build on existing knowledge that is not known, or accessible, because it is being held in secret by the creator, then there is a drying up of collaboration and building on the work of others. (Laureate Education, 2014)

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It is apparent that there is still much work to do in the domain of copyright in the future.  Kaufman (2006) looked at this from a mega perspective and proclaimed, “the practice of educational technology should first begin by determining and justifying what the ultimate desirable impacts of our actions are on society and using that as a guide for the design process” (p. 115).  As designers of learning tools, we will be able to better use open source material, with the intention of building on the work of others.

The members of AECT has worked collaboratively to create and update ethical standards.  In a recent webinar Reigeluth  (2017) challenged participants with the charge of improving upon the practice of design theory, rather than our attempting to prove advanced theories ourselves.  This made my work in creating research that will be more meaningful to my field of practice.

This question was real for me upon completion of my multimedia presentation on the topic of MOOC’s, when posting it in my blog within the MOOC Activity Board and on my Twitter page. It occurred to me that the theorist and scholar who researched and reported on most of what my presentation was about, would be looking at my work.  This notion became very important to me, prior to my being exposed to this week’s resources on the fair and proper use of intellectual property.  (gulp! …am learning much)




Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT). (2015). Code of professional ethics. Retrieved from

Kaufman, R. (2006). Change, choices, and consequences: A guide to mega thinking and planning. Amherst, MA: HRD Press.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014). Anatomy of eLearning: Conceptual framework [Interactive media]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Moore, S. L., & Ellsworth, J. B. (2014). Ethics of educational technology. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. Elen, & M. J. Bishop (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (4th ed.). New York, NY: Springer. p. 115.

Reigeluth, C. (2017). Research to Make a Difference. AECT Web Conference. Retrieved from

#YogaMOOC Journal for Week 2

imagesIt has been a marvelous undertaking to work on the practice of well-being as a skill.  Remembering the “River of Well Being” will help keep me balanced in times of chaos.  However, not feeling like I have to be perfect in my practice as Adele Diamond reminds us that merely using the tools and moving forward will in some way make my life better.

Practicing mindfulness meditation was a gratifying experience, and I especially like the note for us to appreciate ourselves for doing this at the end of the meditation.  That felt reassuring.  Leading us into the compassionate mediation, which allowed for developing feelings of compassion, and a healing forgiveness I felt from meditating about those I’ve had issues with; feeling, and saying, “ May you/we be free from this suffering. May you/we be happy, healthy, and free from pain.  Finally, ending up with the 5 senses meditation, which was an excellent way to get grounded after feeling the chaos of the workaday world.

Awakening to Habits:

It was interesting to learn that we have to be aware of our current habits, in order to change them and begin to form new habits.  It was revealing to practice self-observation techniques to actually begin noticing habits, and stopping them at that moment.  This is powerful, and was like a reset button to me.  Then, after we have broken the pattern, we create a new behavior to replace what we would like to improve. It was reassuring to find out about how it is possible to create a complete new neural structure in our brain, changing negative thought patterns.  Being a life-long learner, I have been pleased to gain in-depth knowledge, putting into practice this neuroplasticity.


Wiring in the Pause:

Each Day?  How about one at a time?  In a less calculated way is more possible for me, by just noticing what is happening.  I have noticed that 5 breaths is a great reset, I would like to apply in more, and other, situations.  Physically, my body relaxed.  I noticed blood flow was better.  I even felt rested, which then allowed me to complete the task at hand without any unwanted distractions.  Clarity was noticeably enhanced, by stopping to take a break and breathe.


Monitoring My Goal:

My goal for this course is to achieve the verified certificate at the end.  This is intended to help with motivation to do all the exercises throughout the entire course. A goal for this week would be for me to make a brief list of tasks and expectations that will need to be accomplished by the end of this week’s course module. I use lists frequently, and get a feeling of satisfaction from having a visual aid that shows my progress, as I mark tasks off the list.


Taking that notion to an even smaller level, I will need to get more familiar with the patterns and rhythm of the course.  I may separate tasks out into days and times that are feasible, or by the tasks, such as watching videos in one session, reading articles in another, saving or scheduling the full yoga sessions at a significant time for me.  This has taken more strategizing than I had expected, but is making me feel confident in how breaking down goals makes them seem so much more attainable.




The History & Evolution of MOOCs




The subject for this presentation is MOOCs, which present relevant challenges and issues in the field of eLearning, and justifies the selections of MOOCs as my topic.  This could be considered as a presentation at an eLearning conference or symposium exploring open educational resources. (Yuan, Powell, & CETIS, 2013)

edx LINK yoga moocThis YogaMOOC  is an online seminar offered on the platform.   “The Science and Practice of Yoga” is related to my workplace from a technical aspect being an online course, but also from a human perspective in how to create mindfulness in our workaday world. (Siemens, 2013)  “Connectivism is the thesis that knowledge is distributed across a network of connections, and therefore that learning consists of the ability to construct and traverse those networks” (Downes, 2012, p. 7).


This MOOC explores different applications and contexts for Connectivism, which relates to my workplace by offering a humanistic perspective in how we use technology as a tool to increase the productivity, and create wellness in our lives, and world.  Keeping our focus on the learner, Downes (2012) reminds us “at the core of connectivism is the idea that learning is not a matter of transferring knowledge from a teacher to a learner, but is rather the product of the learner focusing and repeating creative acts, of practising something that is important and reflecting on this practice” (p. 599).


Daniel, J. (2012). Making sense of MOOCs: Musings in a maze of myth, paradox and possibility. Journal of interactive Media in education2012(3).

Downes, S. (2012). Connectivism and Connective Knowledge. Essays on meaning and learning networks.  UPAEP. Retrieved from

Siemens, G. (2013). Massive open online courses: Innovation in education. Open educational resources: Innovation, research and practice5, 5-15.

Yuan, L., Powell, S., & CETIS, J. (2013). MOOCs and open education: Implications for higher education.




This is a proposal for an eLearning solution that is intended to educate a diverse audience about Open Educational Resources.  This is a relevant geopolitical issue, because proper use of these materials could present opportunities, but also challenges for educators in the world today. Hylen (2012) tells us, “OER is a relatively new phenomenon which may be seen as a part of a larger trend towards openness in higher education…the two most important aspects of openness have to do with free availability over the Internet and as few restrictions as possible on the use of the resource” (p. 1).


To explain this geopolitical event and identify issues surrounding the diffusion of Open Educational Resources, Hylen (2012) suggests, “At a national and international level, new frameworks for HE funding structures, quality insurance and accreditation to support different approaches and models for delivering higher education (and all types of education) will be required” (p. 2).  Institutions and educators will be affected by OER with a need to explore the new tools available online, and a vision toward innovative models for teaching and learning.

This movement is so new there is no way to accurately estimate the number of on-going OER initiatives in existence, however it is certain the number is increasing at a vast pace. Downes (2007) highlights a widely discussed OER issue, saying it is “commonly pointed out that even though a resource may be free for the consumer, it does not follow that the resource is free in the sense that it nonetheless costs something in funding or services to create and distribute a resource” and “in addition to the cost of the resource, the concept of ‘sustainability’ needs to take into account” (p. 32).  Additionally, Downes (2007) offers several models for issues such as funding, staffing, technical, and content. It is also a commonly held opinion that, “Policy makers will need to embrace openness and make education more affordable and accessible for all and at the same time be profitable for the institutions in an open higher education ecosystem” (Yuan, Powell, & CETIS, 2013, p. 18).




Goodyear, Jones, & Thompson (2014) implied OER can address multiple perspectives and diverse audiences of those who will perform as active producers of information because,

“Computer Supported Collaborative Learning has often concerned itself with tool and application development, whereas Web 2.0 processes would suggest changing focus to whole infrastructures and the provision of large-scale or universal services” (p. 443).  This allows for customizing course design and user settings for learner preferences and perhaps the most effective learner-centric outcomes. Open Educational Resources like MOOCs, “appear to be as much about the collective grasping of universities’ leaders to bring higher education into the digital age as they are about a particular method of teaching” (Siemens, 2013, p. 5).


Social Change: 


According to Simonson, Smaldino, Albright, and Zvacek (2011), “Distance learning — and, more recently, online learning— has a long history of increasing access to education, dating back to 1833” (p. 37). From a social change perspective, it is important to consider, “Open Educational Resources (OER) or OpenCourseWare (OCW) has emerged as a movement that aims to eliminate the barriers to sharing knowledge for free and making it reachable for everyone” (Caswell, Henson, Jensen & Wiley, 2008; Duval & Wiley, 2010; OECD, 2007; Islim, Gurel Koybasi, & Cagiltay, 2016, p. 230).

Also, relevant to social change Jahnke (2009), “observed that Web 2.0 applications “transform social systems (e.g. social groups, universities) into socio-technical systems, where socially and technically supported relationships are highly interwoven” (p. 287), which creates highly systemized socialization and overdue shifts in outdated paradigms.  Shen, Nuankhieo, Huang, Amelung, & Laffey (2008) recommend learning analytics use visual descriptors and, “New methods such as social network analysis may be helpful in articulating interaction in online learning and the relationship between interaction and sense of community” (p. 20). In addition, the infographic below offers Five Online Open Educational Resources, to model sharing resources and making connections.




Three themes for a good way to address multiple vantage points from an OER audience in the realm of diversity should include:

  1. Digital Access – full electronic participation in society
  2. Digital Etiquette – being considerate of others
  3. Digital Rights and Responsibilities – freedom extended to everyone in a digital world (Ribble, 2012)


The week ISTE explores Digital Citizenship Week with educational sessions and material to assist educators and learners. “It’s about leveling the playing field and providing young people worldwide with equitable access to powerful learning opportunities… potential for technology to mend gaps in equity, engage students as unique individuals and prepare them for an uncertain future” (ISTE, 2016, p. 2).


Digital Citizenship: 


Richard Culatta, CEO for ISTE proclaimed, “As our interactions with friends, community members and government leaders become increasingly mediated by technology, we must model and teach the behaviors we hope to see in our next generation of digital leaders” (eSchoolNews, 2017). To effectively promote digital citizenship, themes that reflect an OER audience perspective suitably would include:


  1. Digital Communication – when different tools might be most effective
  2. Digital Literacy – teaching and learning about technology and the use of technology
  3. Digital Security – protecting personal information, while taking precautions to protect others’ data, as well. (Ribble, 2012)


In addition, Ribble (2012) reminds, “As technology changes the foundation of education, new issues emerge. Among these is the appropriate and responsible use of technology in the educational field” (p. 149).


Learning Community: 


A strategy to build a community within a digital learning environment will find it  necessary to use collaboration as a learning model to show how respectfulness and awareness of other individuals’ viewpoints requires specific framework and methodology.  “Community of Inquiry framework views blended learning from a socioconstructivist perspective. In order to create a learning community, this model defines three major elements: teaching, cognitive, and social presence” (Issa, El-Ghalayini, Shubita, & Abu-Arqoub, 2014, p. 33).


eLearning Solution: 


In conclusion, this paper proposes an eLearning solution that may be used to reach a diverse group of learners and create awareness of Open Educational Resources, would be properly aligned with a theoretical framework that embraces community of inquiry.   Garrison (2009) agreed scholar practitioners, “explicitly say that they take a ‘collaborative constructivist’ approach to teaching and learning – that learners should make their own sense of stimulus material through participation in a ‘critical community of learners’ or ‘community of inquiry’ …adding more discussion on future directions and, “important current themes such as the creation and distribution of re-usable learning objects” (p. 215).  Finally, García-López, Salazar, Ramírez-Montoya, & Tenorio-Sepúlveda (2017) tell us, “OER has been the detonator for a very important change that could be considered as the formalization of informal learning” (p. 80).





Copyright free images retrieved from

Downes, S. (2007). Models for Sustainable Open Educational Resources. National Research Council Canada. Interdisciplinary Journal of Knowledge and Learning Objects. Volume 3. pp. 29-41.

eSchoolNews. (2017, October 17). ISTE issues Digital Citizenship Week challenge.  Retrieved from

García-López, R. I., Salazar, O. C., Ramírez-Montoya, M. S., & Tenorio-Sepúlveda, G. C. (2017). Competencies for Production, Search, Diffusion and Mobilization of Open Educational Resources. International Education Studies10(4), p. 80.

Garrison, D. R. (2009). Communities of inquiry in online learning. In P. L. Rogers, G. A. Berg, J. V. Boettcher, C. Howard, L. Justice, & K. D. Schenk (Eds.), Encyclopedia of distance learning, volume 1 (2nd ed., pp. 352–355). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Goodyear, P., Jones, C., & Thompson, K. (2014). Computer-supported collaborative learning: Instructional approaches, group processes and educational designs. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, J. Elen, & M. J. Bishop (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (4th ed., pp. 43–452). New York, NY: Springer.

Hylen, J. (2012). Open Educational Resources:  Opportunities and Challenges.  OECD’s Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.  Paris, France. Retrieved from Walden University database.

Infographic Retrieved from:

Issa, G. F., El-Ghalayini, H. A., Shubita, A. F., & Abu-Arqoub, M. H. (2014). A framework for collaborative networked learning in higher education: Design & analysis. International journal of emerging technologies in Learning, 9(4), 32–37.

Islim, O. F., Gurel Koybasi, N. A., & Cagiltay, K. (2016). Use of Open Educational Resources: How, Why and Why Not?. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education28(2), 230-240.

ISTE. (2016). Redefining learning in a technology-driven world. A report to support adoption of

The ISTE Standards for Students. Retrieved from

Jahnke, I. (2009).  The process of digital formalization in sociotechnical learning communities – Needed or overlooked?  In C. O’Malley, D. Suthers, P. Reimann, & A. Dimitracopoulou (Eds.), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning. CSCL Practices. Vol. 1. Pp. 287-291. Thodes, Greece:   University of the Aegean.

McGreal, R., Kinuthia, W., Marshall, S., & McNamara, T. (2013). Open educational resources: Innovation, research and practice; Siemens, G. (2013). OER in Academia.  Chapter 1. Massive Open Online Courses: Innovation in Education? Athabasca University

Ribble, M. (2012). Digital citizenship for educational change. Kappa Delta Pi Record48(4), 148-151.

Shen, D., Nuankhieo, P., Huang, X., Amelung, C., & Laffey, J. (2008). Using social network analysis to understand sense of community in an online learning environment. Journal of educational computing research, 39(1), p. 20.

Simonson, M., Smaldino, S.E., Albright, M. and Zvacek, S. (2011).Teaching and Learning at a Distance: Foundations of Distance Education. Allyn & Bacon: Boston.


Yuan, L., Powell, S., & CETIS, J. (2013). MOOCs and open education: Implications for higher education..History of MOOCs



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Here is the link, and infographic to follow:


Alright.  So, I am participating in this online Yoga class.  It’s called a MOOC, because it is Massive, it’s Online, it’s Open Source, and a Course anyone can also participate in….as long as you are connected to the Internet.

Let’s Go!


(yes, it’s been a while since I have submitted a post…but, WP upgraded and I may need a course to teach me how to to use the new formatting.  Well, after a Yoga session. 🙂

Here is where you sign up:

Here is the first video, if you are thinking about it, but need a little more info:


Designing Presence in eLearning







As paradigms shift, educators are attempting to understand their new roles to create social, cognitive and teaching presence in the online learning environment.  Siemens (2008) says, “instructional designers, due to the developing complexity of tools and availability of open education resources, play an educational role of directing educators to tools and resources” (p.19).  I can verify that notion, by my experience in coordinating and participating in technology committee meetings at Charter Schools our tech support company handles.  These meetings are intended for stakeholders to explore new innovations, as well as create five to ten year plans for the technology infrastructure of their campus.



Siemens’ (2004) theory of connectivism directly relates to social, cognitive, and teaching presence because, “while expectations rise of education’s central role in preparing learners capable of innovating society’s capacity to compete on a global scale, uncertainties exist” (p.19).  Theoretical framework and the strategy of communities of inquiry (CoI) align appropriately to courses we may design because Annand (2011) tells us, “In higher level learning environments, CoI model framework has evolved from a description of the learning process in a social constructivist paradigm to an empirically testable construct within an objectivist paradigm (p. 52).

Anatomy of eLearning

Image Courtesy of Walden University, Laureate Education (2017). 

Dron, Anderson & Siemens (2011) offer “ways that the structural conflict between learner control and teacher guidance can be overcome” (p. 5).  In the video presentation, Siemens (Laureate Education, 2017) suggests that when an educator designs a learning experience, they must create a mix of environments that are community-based, as well as individual.  Mitchell (2012) discovered in using Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework, their mixed methods case study was able to analyze characteristics for knowledge construction patterns and determine how they varied across the social, teaching, and cognitive presence constructs.  Outcomes for this study found the CoI model is effective when applied to high school level students, and further recommendations include, “integrating the groups, which may offer greater academic rigor and high-quality academic modeling opportunities for both” (Mitchell, 2012, p.1).




Annand, D. (2011). Social presence within the community of inquiry framework. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning12(5), 40-56.

Dron, J., Anderson, T., & Siemens, G. (2011). Putting things in context—designing social media for education. Proceedings of the 10th European Conference on e-Learning (pp. 178–186). Reading, Oxfordshire, England: ACPIL.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014). Anatomy of eLearning: Conceptual framework [Interactive media]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

Mitchell, S. K. (2012). The cognitive experiences of online dually enrolled high school students in a community college class (Order No. 3548982). Available from Dissertations & Theses @ Walden University. (1283059752). Retrieved from

Siemens, G. (2004). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. Retrieved from

Siemens, G. (2008, January 27). Learning and knowing in networks: Changing roles for educators and designers [ITForum discussion post]. Message posted to

While beginning the process to research topics thoroughly, I have learned the definitions of some unique concepts and jargon I was totally unfamiliar with before this exercise.  The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods was an effective tool to explore and involve myself deeply into knowledge construction specific to scholarly research.  To master these terms, I will review herein the philosophy of science, the various methods and approaches to research.

Framework for Design

(Creswell, 2009)


The Britannica Concise Encyclopedia  offers a concise definition for Philosophy of Science, as being one of the branches of philosophy that explores the nature of scientific inquiry, with an emphasis on their validity.  This source breaks down the preoccupations into two distinct branches; ontological and epistemological.   Ontological theory relates to the nature of being, while the epistemological scientists look directly into the research methods used to verify natural phenomena.  Dr. Patton told us research is not just about the findings, but controversy actually stems from a focus on methods in which research studies are conducted. (Laureate Education, Inc., 2009d)

Four Worldviews

(Creswell, 2009)


It is important to be a critical thinker in our approach to the Science of Philosophy.  Dr. Patton was adamant about our realizing and to be conscious of what we think and believe personally regarding our discipline, and seriously consider the management of our opinions.  He insisted as Scholar Practitioners we want to inquire directly about what we are doing, and whether our practices work. It is vital that our methods are relevant in the real world of practice.   He called this exercise as having a reality-testing attitude, and stressed how research is studying what works in the world; not support biases.  (Laureate Education, Inc., 2009d)


A field of discipline I have had much practice in as an Access Practitioner, is Community Access Television.  Tom Bishop, one of our thought leaders once wrote in the Quarterly Journal, the Community Media Review:


“We all have different motivations that bring us to community media.  Some are activists, some feel the need to broaden the horizons of others, some want to change the world, and some just want to have fun.  But, underneath all this is an idea we can all agree on:  we need electronic green space.  We need a place to carry out our personal philosophy of community media” (Bishop, CMR, 2004).


This is an example of our defining a worldview, paradigm, or a belief system that guides the action of our entire society from an individual experience or practice.  (Creswell, 2009)






Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Chapter 1. “The Selection of a Research Design” (Laureate Education, Inc., custom ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. p. 6.


Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2009d). Introduction to research design. Baltimore, MD: Author.


Bishop, T. (2004). Mind if I Philosophize? Community Media Review. Vol. 27. No.4. Winter 2004. Alliance for Community Media. Retrieved from

Watch the Video:

“As you engage in theory, what you’re engaging in is a system for explaining how the world is the way it is” (Laureate Education, Theory, 2014i).

In this experiment with technology, I chose to highlight #UTedchat and used a mixture of technologies to demonstrate this innovative exercise.I used Photobooth on my Mac Book Pro to show my image and then I recorded my presentation with Jing. These all could be excellent examples of teaching tools that could enhance the learning experience by showing and explaining the concepts to the learner.


In this field test, I determined that the innovative use of #UTedchat for educators was quite far along the trigger of innovation, but has not quite reached the peak of inflated expectations. (Gartner, 2013) Since I have an extensive background in video and television production, it was hard for me to stick with the talking head video. I believe that was my biggest challenge so far in this exercise, due to the natural tendency to offer visuals to enhance the production to allow for better efficacy in helping the viewer/learner to get a picture of the concept for knowledge construction.



Gartner. (2013). Gartner’s 2013 Hype Cycle for Emerging Technologies Maps Out Evolving Relationship Between Humans and Machines. Retrieved from

Laureate Education (Producer). (2014i). Theory [Video file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.


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